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History Candi in Indonesia



Candi are Hindu and Buddhist temples or sanctuaries in Indonesia, most of which were built between the 8th to the 15th centuries.

Candi of Java

Between the 7th and 15th centuries, hundred of religious structures were constructed of brick and stone in Java, Sumatra and Bali. These are called candi. The term refers to other pre-Islamic structures including gateways and even bathing places, but its principal manifestation is the religious shrine


8th century Buddhist monument, reportedly the world's largest. Seven terraces to the top represent the steps from the earthly realm to Nirvana. Reliefs of the birth, enlightenment and death of the Buddha. A UNESCO World Heritage Site. The Kedu Plain lies to the north west of Yogyakarta and west of Gunung Merapi and south west of Magelang, in Central Java

Candi Mendut

8th century Mahayana Buddhist temple. Candi Pawon

8th century Buddhist temple believed to be dedicated to Kuvera, god of wealth.

Candi Asu, Candi Pendem and Candi Lumbung

on the side of Mount Merapi. 8th and 9th century. The base of the temple has a climbing plant motif.

Candi Canggal

8th century Buddhist complex. A main sanctuary and several smaller temples.

Candi Sambisari

9th century underground Hindu temple buried by eruptions from Mount Merapi for a century. Discovered in 1966 by a farmer plowing his field.

Gunung Sari.

Ruins of three secondary temples and the foot of the main temple remain.

Gunung Wukir

One of the oldest inscriptions on Java, written in 732 CE, found here. Only the bases remain of the main sanctuary and three secondary temples.

Candi Ngawen

Five aligned sanctuaries, one decorated with finely sculpted lions. 8th century, during the transformation from Hinduism to Buddhism.

Dieng Plateau

Eight small Hindu temples from the 7th and 8th centuries, the oldest in Central Java. Surrounded by craters of boiling mud, colored lakes, caves, sulphur outlets, hot water sources and underground channels.

Gedong Songo

South-west of Semarang, Central Java Five temples constructed in 8th and 9th centuries. The site highlights how, in Hinduism, location of temples was as important as the structures themselves. The site has panoramas of three volcanoes and Dieng Plateau.

Candi Merak

Two 10th century Hindu temples, rich in reliefs and decorations, in the middle of a village.

Candi Ceto

On the slopes of Mount Lawu. A 15th century Hindu temple 1470m above sea level.

Candi Sukuh

On the slopes of Mount Lawu. 15th century Hindu complex resembling a Mayan temple. Reliefs illustrate life before birth and sex education.

Candi Prambanan

Roro Jonggrang, the main Prambanan complex. 9th century Hindu temple called the “Slender Maiden”. Main temple dedicated to Shiva flanked by temples to Visnu and Brahma. Reliefs depict Ramayana stories.

Candi Sewu

Buddhist temple complex, older than Roro Jonggrang. A main sanctuary surrounded by many smaller temples. Well preserved guardian statues, replicas of which stand in the central courtyard at the Jogja Kraton.

Candi Lumbung

Buddhist-style, consisting of one main temple surrounded by 16 smaller ones. Candi Plaosan

Buddhist, probably 9th century. Thought to have been built by a Hindu king for his Buddhist queen. Two main temples with reliefs of a man and a woman. Slender stupa. South of main Prambanan complex

Candi Sajiwan

Buddhist temple decorated with reliefs concerning education. The base and staircase are decorated with animal fables.

Candi Sari

Once a sanctuary for Buddhist priests. 8th century. Nine stupas at the top with two rooms beneath, each believed to be places for priests to meditate.

Candi Kalasan

8th century Buddhist temple built in commemoration of the marriage of a king and his princess bride, ornamented with finely carved reliefs.

Candi Gana

Rich in statues, bas-reliefs and sculpted stones. Frequent representations of children or dwarfs with raised hands. Located in the middle of housing complex. Under restoration since 1997.

Candi Kedulan

Discovered in 1994 by sand diggers, 4m deep. Square base of main temple visible. Secondary temples not yet fully excavated.

Ratu Boko

Built between 8th and 9th centuries. Mixed Buddhist and Hindu style. Partially restored palace auditorium. Ruins of the royal garden with a bathing pool inside. South of Ratu Boko

Candi Banyunibo

A small 9th century Buddhist complex. A main temple surrounded by six smaller ones forming a stupa. Originally part of a much larger Buddhist site. Recently restored.

Candi Barong

Two almost identical temples on terraces. Believed to be 9th century Hindu and part of a sacred complex, of which they were the crown.

Candi Ijo

A complex of three-tiered temples, but only one has been renovated. A main sanctuary and three secondary shrines with statues. Still under reconstruction.


A group of pole sittings in the shape of a Javanese gong. About 40 have been discovered, but others may remain buried. Locals believe this to be the resting place of King Boko.

Candi Abang

Actually a well that looks like a pyramid with very tall walls. In some aspects looks like Borobudur. Unique atmosphere.

Candi Gampingan

Ruins 1.5m underground of a temple and stairs. Reliefs of animals at the foot of the temple are believed to be a fable.


At the base of Abang temple. Perhaps younger than other regional temples. Complex of caves with two mouths. Statue and bas-relief in left chamber.

Situs Payak

The best preserved bathing place in Central Java. 5m below ground. Thought to be Hindu.

West Java

Candi Cangkuang

one of the few surviving West Java's Hindu monument at Leles, Garut, West Java. Located on an island in the middle of a lake covered by water lilies. Shiva statue faces east toward the sunrise. Date uncertain.

Candi Batu Jaya

a compound of Buddhist Stupa made from red brick and mortar located at Batu Jaya, Karawang, West Java. Probably dated back to Tarumanagara kingdom in 6th century AD.

Malang, East Java

Candi Badut

Small Shivaite temple dating from the 8th century.

Candi Songgoriti

very similar to Candi Sembrada at Dieng

Candi Jago Late 13th

century. Terraces decorated with reliefs in the distinctive (Javanese shadow puppet) style with scenes from the Mahabharata epic and underworld demons.

Candi Panataran

East Java's only sizable temple complex, with a series of shrines and pavilions. Constructed 12th through 15th centuries. Believed to be the state temple of the Majapahit Empire.

Candi Singosari

Dedicated to the kings of the Singosari Dynasty (1222 to 1292 AD), the precursors of the Majapahit Kingdom, it was built in 1304.

East Java. Tretes & Trowulan areas

Candi Jawi

Tretes. A 13th century funerary temple. Slender Buddhist shrine completed around 1300. Overlooks holy Mount Penangungan, which has terraced sanctuaries, meditation grottoes and sacred pools, about 80 sites in all. Believed to be the burial site of King Airlangga, who died in 1049.

Candi Tikus Trowulan

Trowulan was once the capital of the Majapahit kingdom, the controller of most of the important ports of the day. Survived thanks to a sophisticated irrigation system. Tikus held run-off water from Mount Penanggungan for sanctification rites. Site also contains parts of the palace gate, entryway and water system.

Candi Brahu

Trowulan. Location the temple front of Bubat Area in Majapahit Palace environment (732'33.85"S, 11222'28.01"E). Brahu Temple is a budhis temple, built at 15 a.c and restored during 1990 and was finished during 1995. There was no accurate note the function of the temple.

Candi Gentong

Trowulan. Location the temple 350m east of Brahu temple(732'38.05"S, 11222'40.65"E). Many Ceramic from Ming and Yuan Dynasty founded in this temple area. There was no accurate note the function of the temple.

Candi Muteran

Trowulan. Location the temple north of Brahu temple ( 732'27.72"S, 11222'29.41"E). There was no accurate note the function of the temple.

Kolam Segaran

Trowulan. Segaran pond is Majapahit Heritage (733'29.55"S,11222'57.54"E) The Pond was found during 1926 by Ir.Maclain Pont. First restoration was 1966, finished at 1984. The function of this pond was as the place of recreation and to greet the foreign guest. This was the biggest ancient pond founded in Indonesia.

Candi Surawana

is a small temple, of the Majapahit Kingdom, located in the Canggu Village of the Kediri (near Pare) district in Java, Indonesia. It was believed to have been built in 1390 AD as a memorial to Wijayarajasa, the Prince of Wengker.

Candi of Sumatra

Candi Muara Takus, Riau

Candi Biaro Bahal, South Tapanuli

Candi Muaro Jambi, Jambi

Candi of Kalimantan

Candi Agung

Hulu Sungai Utara, South Kalimantan, a Hindu Candi. South Kalimantan was a base of Hindu Kingdom of Negara Dipa, which then inherited by Negara Daha. Candi Laras, Tapin, South Kalimantan, a Buddhist Candi. Buddhist Kingdom in South Kalimantan was represented by the kingdom of Tanjung Puri.

References : -Soekmono, R. Candi:Symbol of the Universe -sources from internet

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